Myths about 47, XYY (and why they are just myths!)
Boys with 47,XYY are engaged in more criminal activity and present an increased incidence of aggressive behavior.
Aside from a few confounded studies, this has not been shown to be true in the literature. Criminal convictions for a wide variety of crimes in boys with 47,XYY were similar to controls when adjusting for socioeconomic parameters [Stoccholm et al., 2012].
There is an increased incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the 47,XYY population.
It has been reported that 29% to 50% of 47,XYY boys have ASD (Ross et al., 2012; Bardsley et al., 2013). This would be markedly above the incidence of ASD in the general male population (CDC, 2013). However, the studies reporting the increased incidence of ASD did not take into account family histories of ASD. Ross et al. (2012) also did not separate the pre- and post-natally diagnosed 47,XYY populations, which typically present as two distinct phenotypes of the disorder. Further research is warranted.
As many as 1 in 1000 boys born worldwide have 47, XYY, yet 85% or more of those with the disorder are never diagnosed.
Boys consistently present with language-based learning disabilities and motor planning issues that are related to the high rate of dyspraxia and dyslexia associated with the disorder.
In the majority of cases the primary cause for dyslexia and dyspraxia is unknown. 47, XYY may be the cause in many cases.
Boys with 47, XYY are typically an average height of 6’3″.
There may be an increased incidence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the 47, XYY population but further comprehensive and larger samples of boys with 47, XYY need to be investigated.
Boys with 47, XYY are typically an average height of 6’3″.
Related X & Y Disorder Research
X&Y Variation Disorders encompass individuals who are born with 45, 47, 48, or 49 chromosomes, rather than the standard 46. The Focus Foundation’s efforts are centered on disorders resulting from having 47, 48, and 49 chromosomes. 45, X (also known as Turner’s Syndrome) occurs in one out of 2,000 live female births and is actively and effectively served by The Turner Syndrome Society. Below are more details about X&Y Variations involving 47, 48, and 49 chromosomes:
Only 25% of males with 47,XXY are ever diagnosed during their lifetimes; fewer than 10% of 47,XXY individuals are identified prior to adolescence. This means that millions of affected children remain undiagnosed–often because they are commonly misdiagnosed as simply having speech or motor delays. More than 500,000 people are believed to have 47,XXY disorders in the United States alone, with an equal distribution across all racial and socio-economic groups.
Based on scientific studies, it is important to consider early hormonal replacement therapy (EHRT) for 47,XXY boys (who experience decreased testosterone production during three critical developmental periods) before they are 18 months old. Testosterone treatment given then has been shown to have a positive impact on brain function through 9 years of age…READ MORE
As many as 1 in 900 girls have 47,XXX. Unfortunately, millions of affected girls are undiagnosed. Girls who are prenatally diagnosed and receive early intervention services typically exhibit fewer and less severe cognitive disabilities.
There is an equal distribution of 47,XXX across all racial and socio-economic groups…READ MORE
Boys with 48,XXYY consistently exhibit Language-Based Learning Disabilities (LLD) and difficulties with Motor Planning, issues that are related to the high rate of dyslexia associated with the disorder. However, they seem to be stronger in math and such visual-spatial activities as assembling puzzles or remembering directions.
Intellectual disabilities are common in 48,XXYY, with average full-scale IQs in the range of 70-80. Verbal IQs are seen to be significantly lower than performance IQs, due to language-based learning difficulties…READ MORE
48,XXXX (also known as Tetrasomy X or Tetra X) is a rare sex chromosome disorder that was first identified in the early 1960s. Since that time, approximately 100 cases have been reported, although less than 50 are described in scientific literature. Due to the scarcity of this female chromosomal variation, it is difficult to define a common phenotypic presentation. A lack of congenital malformations, mild dysmorphology, and varied developmental trajectory suggests that 48,XXXX is largely underdiagnosed…READ MORE
48,XXXY can result from meiotic or mitotic nondisjunction (errors in chromosomal separation) and is often considered a variant of Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). However, boys with 48,XXXY often exhibit a more complicated neurodevelopmental profile than boys with 47,XXY…READ MORE
The first case of 49,XXXXY syndrome was reported in the 1970s, and this chromosomal variation remains one of the rarest sex chromosome disorders. 49,XXXXY results from nondisjunction (errors in chromosomal separation) of the X chromosome occurring during both Meiosis I and Meiosis II…READ MORE
Klinefelter Syndrome & Other Names You May hear
X & Y Variations is a neurogenetic disorder known by many names, among them: Sex Chromosome Disorders, X & Y Chromosomal Variations, Sex Chromosome Anomaly and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Variations. Within the disorder are many sub-categories, which are identified by names including 47 XXY (Klinefelter Syndrome), 49 XXXXY, Tetrasomy X, 49 XXXXXX, Pentasomy X, 48 XXY.
What You Can Do Now
If you have received a prenatal diagnosis indicating that your child has an X & Y chromosomal variation, or feel that your son or daughter is experiencing developmental delays or developmental dysfunction, the following options are designed to help you take the next step in securing appropriate treatment or an early diagnosis.