Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin and more common in boys than girls about 4 to1. Dyslexia is quite common in the general population and is believed to be present in up to 17 percent of the U.S. population.
Dyslexia typically results from a deficit in the phonological component of language so children with dyslexia are unable to “hear or decipher” the difference between sounds such d or t or b or p. Their spelling is often phonetic so they spell words as they sound rather than as expected based on the rules of the language. The acquisition of reading is extremely challenging and several areas may be effected. Typically, there are four primary areas that may be challenging which include: decoding (sounding it out), fluency (how fast you read), accuracy (reading words correctly) and comprehension (understanding what you read).
The reading dysfunction is unexpected deficit in relation to other cognitive abilities. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and knowledge, which increases the likelihood of academic failure and poor self-concept.
Children with Dyslexia struggle academically but are not “dumb” or “lazy.” While Dyslexia is often debilitating if not addressed, the condition can be successfully managed and even overcome. Children with dyslexia learn differently but are intellectually competent and highly successful when identified early and treated aggressively.
Dyslexia or reading dysfunction is extremely common in children with X and Y chromosomal disorders. Dyslexia often co-occurs with developmental dyspraxia. Therefore, children diagnosed with dyslexia should be screened for X and Y chromosomal disorders using a chromosomal analysis. If the dyslexia and XY disorders co-occur, then there are many changes that can and should happen. For the boys with 47,XXY, biological treatment should be discussed with your pediatrician and a pediatric endocrinologist as soon as possible. If the child has 47,XYY or 47,XXX then several specific reading programs are should be implemented ( we need link to FFW)
Since developmental dyspraxia may occur with dyslexia, it should evaluated and determined if it is present. If developmental dyspraxia is evident with dyslexia, treatment goals, objectives and intervention strategies should be adjusted accordingly.