Developmental Dyspraxia is neurobiological disorder which occurs more commonly in boys than girls (4:1). The disorder has been described as Developmental Motor Coordination Disorder, Minimal Brain disorder or dysfunction.
Developmental Dyspraxia is characterized by the inability to identify, plan, execute motor movements on demand without a known sensory deficit. These same movements can be evident spontaneously which often appears that ” the children are stubborn or willful when asked to produce an action or word or even a sound.” Children may appear clumsy, or disorganized when the actual problem is planning deficit or the inability to produce organized, well executed movements on demand and rapidly.
Motor planning deficiencies may occur in speech domain and this results in significant speech delay with inconsistent distortions, misarticulations and omissions of sounds. This is called Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) and is often accompanied with developmental dyspraxia.
Children with X and Y disorders have an increased risk for developmental dyspraxia and Childhood Apraxia of Speech (www.apraxia-kids.com). Every child, who has been diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia, should be considered for chromosomal analysis so that X and Y chromosomal disorders can be ruled out.
- To increase awareness, early identification and appropriate treatment for all aspects of Developmental Dyspraxia
- To promote early screening and detection of children with Developmental Dyspraxia who may have an X & Y Variation
- To understand the neurobiology of Developmental Dyspraxia and its relationship to X & Y Variations
- To promote recovery and early targeted treatment programs for children with Developmental Dyspraxia with and without X and Y chromosomal disorders
Our X & Y Disorder Research
The Focus Foundation’s efforts are geared toward 3 of the 4 known X & Y Variation disorders.The fourth, called Turner Syndrome, occurs in one out of
2,000 live female births and is actively and effectively served by The Turner Syndrome Society. Of the other three variations:
Only 25% of males with 47,XXY are ever diagnosed during their lifetimes; fewer than 10% of 47,XXY individuals are identified prior to adolescence. This means that millions of affected children remain undiagnosed–often because they are commonly misdiagnosed as simply having speech or motor delays. More than 500,000 people are believed to have 47,XXY disorders in the United States alone, with an equal distribution across all racial and socio-economic groups.
Based on scientific studies, it is important to consider early hormonal replacement therapy (EHRT) for 47,XXY boys (who experience decreased testosterone production during three critical developmental periods) before they are 18 months old. Testosterone treatment given then has been shown to have a positive impact on brain function through 9 years of age…READ MORE
At least 85% of those with 47,XYY are never diagnosed. 47,XYY boys consistently present with language-based Learning Disabilities and difficulties with Motor Planning–both issues that are related to the high rate of dyspraxia and dyslexia associated with the disorder. However, 47,XYY boys are commonly misdiagnosed as simply having speech or motor delays.
Boys with 47,XYY typically reach an average height of between 6’3” and 6’5”…READ MORE
As many as 1 in 900 girls have 47,XXX. Unfortunately, millions of affected girls are undiagnosed. Girls who are prenatally diagnosed and receive early intervention services typically exhibit fewer and less severe cognitive disabilities.
There is an equal distribution of 47,XXX across all racial and socio-economic groups…READ MORE
Boys with 48,XXYY consistently exhibit Language-Based Learning Disabilities (LLD) and difficulties with Motor Planning, issues that are related to the high rate of dyslexia associated with the disorder. However, they seem to be stronger in math and such visual-spatial activities as assembling puzzles or remembering directions.
Intellectual disabilities are common in 48,XXYY, with average full-scale IQs in the range of 70-80. Verbal IQs are seen to be significantly lower than performance IQs, due to language-based learning difficulties…READ MORE
48,XXXX (also known as Tetrasomy X or Tetra X) is a rare sex chromosome disorder that was first identified in the early 1960s. Since that time, approximately 100 cases have been reported, although less than 50 are described in scientific literature. Due to the scarcity of this female chromosomal variation, it is difficult to define a common phenotypic presentation. A lack of congenital malformations, mild dysmorphology, and varied developmental trajectory suggests that 48,XXXX is largely underdiagnosed…READ MORE
48,XXXY can result from meiotic or mitotic nondisjunction (errors in chromosomal separation) and is often considered a variant of Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). However, boys with 48,XXXY often exhibit a more complicated neurodevelopmental profile than boys with 47,XXY…READ MORE
The first case of 49,XXXXY syndrome was reported in the 1970s, and this chromosomal variation remains one of the rarest sex chromosome disorders. 49,XXXXY results from nondisjunction (errors in chromosomal separation) of the X chromosome occurring during both Meiosis I and Meiosis II…READ MORE
Penta X Syndrome is an extremely rare chromosomal disorder that only affects females. While girls normally only have two X chromosomes, girls with Penta X have five X chromosomes. As of 2011, less than 40 cases have been reported.…READ MORE
Klinefelter Syndrome & Other Names You May hear
X & Y Variations is a neurogenetic disorder known by many names, among them: Sex Chromosome Disorders, X & Y Chromosomal Variations, Sex Chromosome Anomaly and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Variations. Within the disorder are many sub-categories, which are identified by names including 47 XXY (Klinefelter Syndrome), 49 XXXXY, Tetrasomy X, 49 XXXXXX, Pentasomy X, 48 XXY.