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ADHD Symptoms

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder involving the common pattern of hyperactivity, impulsivity and/or inattention that interferes with development and learning. Children with ADHD can have problems organizing and executing tasks in school and other areas of their life. They can easily be distracted and often times cannot sit still for very long.

Behavior problems may also exist such as not being able to wait one’s turn or interrupting and disturbing others’ conversations and activities. Symptoms can present as early as ages 3-6, and a comprehension evaluation by a clinician is necessary for diagnosis.

It is estimated that 20-50% of children with XY chromosome disorders experience ADHD. Consequently, children who have ADHD have an increased risk of also having an XY chromosome disorder.

Screening for XY chromosome disorders for children with ADHD could be critical for proper diagnosis and treatment, and more investigation on this issue is needed to learn more about the coexistence of these related disorders.

OUR FOCUS

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Our X & Y Disorder Research

The Focus Foundation’s efforts are geared toward 3 of the 4 known X & Y Variation disorders.The fourth, called Turner Syndrome, occurs in one out of
2,000 live female births and is actively and effectively served by The Turner Syndrome Society. Of the other three variations:

Only 25% of males with 47,XXY are ever diagnosed during their lifetimes; fewer than 10% of 47,XXY individuals are identified prior to adolescence. This means that millions of affected children remain undiagnosed–often because they are commonly misdiagnosed as simply having speech or motor delays. More than 500,000 people are believed to have 47,XXY disorders in the United States alone, with an equal distribution across all racial and socio-economic groups.

Based on scientific studies, it is important to consider early hormonal replacement therapy (EHRT) for 47,XXY boys (who experience decreased testosterone production during three critical developmental periods) before they are 18 months old. Testosterone treatment given then has been shown to have a positive impact on brain function through 9 years of age…READ MORE

At least 85% of those with 47,XYY are never diagnosed. 47,XYY boys consistently present with language-based Learning Disabilities and difficulties with Motor Planning–both issues that are related to the high rate of dyspraxia and dyslexia associated with the disorder. However, 47,XYY boys are commonly misdiagnosed as simply having speech or motor delays.

Boys with 47,XYY typically reach an average height of between 6’3” and 6’5”…READ MORE

As many as 1 in 900 girls have 47,XXX. Unfortunately, millions of affected girls are undiagnosed. Girls who are prenatally diagnosed and receive early intervention services typically exhibit fewer and less severe cognitive disabilities.

There is an equal distribution of 47,XXX across all racial and socio-economic groups…READ MORE

Boys with 48,XXYY consistently exhibit Language-Based Learning Disabilities (LLD) and difficulties with Motor Planning, issues that are related to the high rate of dyslexia associated with the disorder. However, they seem to be stronger in math and such visual-spatial activities as assembling puzzles or remembering directions.

Intellectual disabilities are common in 48,XXYY, with average full-scale IQs in the range of 70-80. Verbal IQs are seen to be significantly lower than performance IQs, due to language-based learning difficulties…READ MORE

48,XXXX (also known as Tetrasomy X or Tetra X) is a rare sex chromosome disorder that was first identified in the early 1960s. Since that time, approximately 100 cases have been reported, although less than 50 are described in scientific literature. Due to the scarcity of this female chromosomal variation, it is difficult to define a common phenotypic presentation. A lack of congenital malformations, mild dysmorphology, and varied developmental trajectory suggests that 48,XXXX is largely underdiagnosed…READ MORE

48,XXXY can result from meiotic or mitotic nondisjunction (errors in chromosomal separation) and is often considered a variant of Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). However, boys with 48,XXXY often exhibit a more complicated neurodevelopmental profile than boys with 47,XXY…READ MORE

The first case of 49,XXXXY syndrome was reported in the 1970s, and this chromosomal variation remains one of the rarest sex chromosome disorders. 49,XXXXY results from nondisjunction (errors in chromosomal separation) of the X chromosome occurring during both Meiosis I and Meiosis II…READ MORE

Klinefelter Syndrome & Other Names You May hear

X & Y Variations is a neurogenetic disorder known by many names, among them: Sex Chromosome Disorders, X & Y Chromosomal Variations, Sex Chromosome Anomaly and Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy Variations. Within the disorder are many sub-categories, which are identified by names including 47 XXY (Klinefelter Syndrome), 49 XXXXY, Tetrasomy X, 49 XXXXXX, Pentasomy X, 48 XXY.

What You Can Do Now

If you have had a prenatal diagnosis or feel you may have a child with developmental delays or developmental dysfunction the following options are designed to help you towards the next step in treatment or early diagnosis.

RESEARCH

Take The Child Questionnaire

QUESTIONNAIRE

DIAGNOSIS

Learn About Chromosomal Microarray

Chromosomal Testing

TREATMENT

Syndrome-specific Therapy

ARRANGE A CONSULTATION